Monday, September 11, 2017

HISTORY BOROBUDUR

HISTORY OF THE BOROBUDUR TEMPLE

HISTORY  Borobudur is a Buddhist temple, located in the village of Borobudur Magelang district, Central Java, built by King Samaratungga, one of the ancient Mataram kingdoms, descendant of Wangsa Syailendra. Borobudur name is a combination of the words Bara and Budur. Bara from Sanskrit means a temple or monastery complex. While Budur comes from the word Beduhur which means above, thus Borobudur means Monastery on the hill. Meanwhile, according to other sources means a mountain that is terraced (budhara), while other sources say Borobudur means monastery located on high ground. Borobudur building shaped punden berundak consists of 10 levels, measuring 123 x 123 meters. It is 42 meters high before being renovated and 34.5 meters after being renovated because the lowest level is used as a retaining wall. This Buddhist temple has 1460 reliefs and 504 Buddhist stupas in its complex. The six lowest levels are square and three levels above them are circular and one of the highest levels of Buddhist stupa facing west. Each level symbolizes the stages of human life. According to the Mahayana Buddhist class, anyone who wants to reach the level of Buddhism must go through every level of life. * Kamadhatu, the basic part of Borobudur, symbolizes a man who is still bound by lust. * Rupadhatu, four levels above it, represents the man who has been able to free himself from lust but still bound to form and form. At that level, the Buddha statue is laid open. * Arupadhatu, three levels above it where Buddha is placed inside a hollowed stupa. It represents a man who has been free from lust, likeness, and form. * Arupa, the topmost symbol of nirvana, where the Buddha dwells. Each level has reliefs that will read coherently in a clockwise direction (left direction from the entrance of the temple). In relief Borobudur tells the story of a very legendary story, various contents of the story, among others, there are reliefs about the epic Ramayana, there are also reliefs of jātaka story. In addition, there are also reliefs that describe the condition of society at that time. For example, the relief of farmer activity reflecting on the progress of the current agricultural system and the relief of the sailboat is a representation of the progress of the voyage which was then based in Bergotta (Semarang). The overall reliefs that exist in the Borobudur temple reflect the Buddha's teachings. An Indian Buddhist named Atisha, in the 10th century, had visited a temple built 3 centuries before Angkor Wat in Cambodia and 4 centuries before the Great Cathedral in Europe. Thanks to visiting Borobudur and armed with Buddhist scripts from Serlingpa (one of the king of Sriwijaya Kingdom), Atisha was able to develop Buddhist teachings. He became the abbot of Vikramasila and taught the Tibetans about how to practice the Dharma. Six manuscripts from Serlingpa were summarized into a core of teachings called "The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment" or better known as Bodhipathapradipa. One of the unanswered questions about Borobudur is how the conditions around the temple were built and why the temple was found buried. Some say Borobudur initially stood surrounded by a swamp and then buried by the eruption of Merapi. It is based on Kalkutta inscription that read 'Amawa' means sea of ​​milk. The word is then interpreted as a lava Merapi, Borobudur likely buried in cold lava Merapi. The villages around Borobudur, such as Karanganyar and Wanurejo, have the activity of craftsmen. In addition, the peak watu Kendil is an ideal place to view the panorama of Borobudur from above. The earthquake of 27 May 2006 did not have any impact on Borobudur so that the temple building can still be visited. History of Borobudur Temple About three hundred years ago, where this temple is still in the form of forest grove by the surrounding population called Redi Borobudur. For the first time, the name Borobudur is known from the Negarakertagama manuscript by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 AD, mentioned about the monastery in Budur. Then on the Text of Babad Tanah Jawi (1709-1710) there was news about Mas Dana, a rebel against King Paku Buwono I, who was caught in Redi Borobudur and sentenced to death. Then in 1758, there was news of a prince from Yogyakarta, the prince of Monconagoro, who was interested in seeing the statue of a knight enclosed in a cage. In 1814, Thomas Stamford Raffles received news from his subordinates about a hill filled with carved stones. Based on that news Raffles sent Cornelius, an admirer of art and history, to clean the hill. After cleaning for two months Ghandadwipa (Bengalore) named Kumaragacya is highly respected, and a prince from Kashmir named Visvawarman as an expert adviser in the Buddhist teachings of Tantra Vajrayana. The construction of this temple begins at the time of Maha Raja Dananjaya who holds Sri Sanggramadananjaya, followed by his son, Samarotthungga, and by his granddaughter, Dyah Ayu Pramodhawardhani. Before being restored, Borobudur temple is just a ruin like the artifacts of the newly discovered temple. Further restoration by Cornelius in the Raffles and Resident Hatmann periods, after which the next period was carried out in 1907-1911 by Theodorus van Erp who rebuilt the composition of the temple form of the ruins as it was eaten by the times up to the present form. Van Erp was actually a Military Genie building engineer with the rank of first lieutenant, but was then interested in researching and studying the intricacies of Borobudur Temple, from his philosophy to the teachings it contained. For that he tried to do comparative studies for several years in India. He also went to Sri Lanka to see the composition of the top building of the Sanchi stupa in Kandy, until van Erp finally found the shape of Borobudur Temple. While the foundation of philosophy and religion found by Stutterheim and NJ. Krom, which is about the teachings of Buddhism Dharma with the Mahayana-Yogacara and there is a tendency also mixed with the flow of Tantrayana-Vajrayana. Research on the composition of the temple and philosophy buildings that brought certainly takes time not less, especially when connected with other temple buildings that are still one clump. As well as between the Borobudur Temple with Pawon Temple and Mendut Temple geographically located on one lane. Borobudur Temple Borobudur Temple is the second largest temple after Ankor Wat Temple in Cambodia. Building area of ​​Borobudur Temple 15.129 m2 composed of 55.000 m3 stone, from 2 million pieces of rocks. Stone size averaging 25 cm X 10 cm X 15 cm. The length of the piece of stone as a whole 500 km with the overall weight of the stone 1.3 million tons. The walls of Borobudur Temple are surrounded by pictures or reliefs that are a series of stories that are organized in 1,460 panels. Panel length of 2 meters each. If the relief circuit is stretched then the relief is approximately 3 km long. The number of levels there are ten, the level 1-6 is square, while the level 7-10 is round. Statues contained in the entire temple building amounted to 504 pieces. The height of the temple from the ground to the end of the main stupa was 42 meters, but now only 34.5 meters after being struck by lightning. According to the investigation of Austrian anthropologist Robert von Heine Geldern, the ancestors of the Indonesian nation are familiar with the cultural order of the Neolithic and Megalithic periods of South Vietnam and Cambodia. In the time of Megalithic the ancestors of the Indonesian nation to make the grave of his ancestors as well as a place of worship in the form of a pyramided structure, the smaller upwards. One of them is found in Lebak Sibedug Leuwiliang Bogor West Java. Similar buildings are also found at Sukuh Temple near Solo, as well as Borobudur Temple. If we look from a distance, Borobudur will look like the arrangement of a terraced building or a kind of pyramid and a stupa. Unlike the giant pyramids in Egypt and the Teotihuacan Pyramid in Mexico Borobudur temple is another version of the pyramid building. The Pyramid of Borobudur is a staircase kepunden that will not be found in any country or region, including in India. This is one of the advantages of Borobudur temple which is typical of Buddhist architecture in Indonesia.
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